California is a state in the Western United States. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; and has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west.

With over 39.5 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), it is the most populous and the third-largest U.S. state by area.

It is also the most populated subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world.

The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation’s second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7 million residents and the latter having over 9.6 million.

Sacramento is the state’s capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the country (after New York City).

Los Angeles County is the country’s most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by area in the country (Alaska has some larger subdivisions, but they are not called counties).

San Francisco, which is both a city and a county, is the second most densely populated major city in the country (after New York City) and the fifth most densely populated county in the country, behind four of New York City’s five boroughs.

Prior to European colonization, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America and contained the highest Native American population density north of what is now Mexico. European exploration in the 16th and 17th centuries led to the colonization of California by the Spanish Empire. \The area became a part of Mexico in 1821, following its successful war for independence, but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.

Northern California
1.1 Central California
1.2 Great Basin
1.3 North Coast
1.4 Sacramento Valley
1.5 Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta
1.6 San Francisco Bay Area
1.7 Sierra Nevada
1.8 Shasta Cascade

Southern California
2.1 Central Coast
2.2 Desert Region
2.3 Inland Southern California
2.4 South Coast

Northern California

Central California
Central Coast (North)
-Big Sur
-Monterey Bay
-Salinas Valley
-Santa Cruz Mountains
Diablo Range
San Joaquin Valley (North)
-Metropolitan Fresno

Great Basin
Eastern Sierra
-Owens Valley
Tricorner Region/Surprise Valley
-Modoc Plateau
-Warner Mountains

North Coast
Lost Coast
Emerald Triangle
Klamath Mountains
Mendocino Mountains

Sacramento Valley
Sacramento Metropolitan Area
Yuba-Sutter area
-Sutter Buttes

Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta
San Joaquin County

San Francisco Bay Area
East Bay
-Oakland–Alameda County
-Tri-Valley Area
–Amador Valley
–Livermore Valley
–San Ramon Valley
North Bay
-Marin County
–West Marin
–Ross Valley
-Wine Country
–Napa Valley
–Russian River Valley
–Sonoma Valley
-Telecom Valley
The Peninsula
-City and County of San Francisco
-San Mateo County
South Bay
-Santa Clara Valley
–San Jose–Santa Clara County
–Silicon Valley

Sierra Nevada
Gold Country
Lake Tahoe

Shasta Cascade
Mount Shasta
Redding Area
Trinity Alps

Southern California

Central Coast (South) /Tri-Counties
San Luis Obispo Area
-Five Cities
Santa Barbara Area
-Santa Ynez Valley

Desert Region
Mojave Desert
-Death Valley
-High Desert
–Antelope Valley
–Morongo Valley
–Victor Valley
-Panamint Range
Colorado Desert
-Low Desert
–Coachella Valley
–Imperial Valley
-Palo Verde Valley
-Yuha Desert

Inland Southern California
San Joaquin Valley (South)
-Kern County
Tehachapi Mountains

South Coast
Ventura County
-Oxnard Plain
–East County-Thousand Oaks, Moorpark, Simi Valley
Channel Islands
Greater Los Angeles
-Los Angeles Basin
–Gateway Cities
–Los Angeles City
—East Los Angeles
—Harbor Area
—South Los Angeles
—Silicon Beach
–Palos Verdes Peninsula
-South Bay
–Beach Cities
-Conejo Valley
-San Gabriel Valley
Crescenta Valley
-Peninsular Ranges (North)
–San Jacinto Mountains
–Santa Rosa Mountains
-Pomona Valley
Puente Hills
Santa Clarita Valley
San Gabriel Mountains
San Fernando Valley
Santa Monica Mountains
-Hollywood Hills
Orange County Area
-Santa Ana-Anaheim-Irvine, CA
–Santa Ana
-South Coast Metro
Santa Ana Valley
Saddleback Valley
Santa Ana Mountains
Inland Empire
-Cucamonga Valley
-San Jacinto Valley
-San Bernardino Valley
-Chino Valley
-Perris Valley
-San Gorgonio Pass
-San Bernardino Mountains
-San Jacinto Mountains
San Diego–Tijuana
San Diego metropolitan area
-North County
–North County Coastal
–North County Inland
–Temecula Valley
-East County
–South Bay
–Mountain Empire

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